References

Adenuga, T. (1991). Demographic and personal factors in predicting self-directedness in learning. In H. B. Long's (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. 93-106). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Aslanian, C. B., & Brickell, H. M. (1980). Americans in transition: Life changes as reasons for adult learning. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A Social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc..

Bonham, L. A. (1989). Self-directed orientation toward learning: A learning style. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Emerging theory and practice (pp. 13-42). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Bonham, L. A. (1991). Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: What does it measure? Adult Education Quarterly, 41(2), 92-99.

Brill, P. L., & Hayes, J. P. (1981). Taming your turmoil: Managing the transitions of adult life. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Brookfield, S. M. (1984). Self-directed learning: A critique of research and theory. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Adult Education Research Conference. Raleigh, NC, April 5-7.

Brookfield, S. M. (1988). Conceptual, methodological and practical ambiguities in self directed learning. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 11-38). Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Adult Education Department.

Brookfield, S. M. (1991). Foreword to P. C. Candy's Self-Direction for Lifelong Learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Brockett, R. G. (1985). Methodological and substantive issues in the measurement of self-directed learning readiness. Adult Education Quarterly, 36, 15-24.

Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991). Self-direction in adult learning: Perspectives on theory, research and practice. New York: Routledge.

Caffarella, R. S., & O'Donnell, J. M. (1988). Research in self-directed learning: Past, present, and future trends. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 39-64). Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Adult Education Department.

Candy, P. C. (1990). The transition from learner-control to autodiaxy: More than meets the eye. In H. B. Long (Ed.) Advances in research and practice in self-directed learning (pp. 9-46). Norman, OK: Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-Direction for lifelong learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Clark, M. C., & Wilson, A. L. (1991). Context and rationality in Mezirow's theory of Transformational Learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 41,(2), 75-91.

Cloud, D. L. (1992). Association of parent-child self-directed learning readiness: An exploratory study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Confessore, G. J. (1992). An introduction to self-directed learning. In G. J. Confessore and S. J. Confessore (Ed.) Guideposts to self-directed learning. King of Prussia, PA: Organization Design and Development, Inc..

Confessore, G. J., & Long, H. B. (1992). Abstracts of literature in self-directed learning 1983-1991. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Confessore, G. J., Long, H. B., Redding, T. R. (1993). The status of self-directed learning literature, 1966-1991. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Emerging perspectives of self-directed learning (pp. 45-56). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Cronbach, L. J. (1968). Psychological issues and recent curriculum reforms. In R. G. Kuhlen (Ed.) Studies in educational psychology (pp. 19-26). Waltham, MA: Blaisdell Publishing Co..

Cross, K. P. (1988). 10th printing. Adults as learners: Increasing participation and facilitating learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Curry, M. A. (1983). The analysis of self-directed learning characteristics in older adults engaged in formal learning in two settings. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, (05A), p. 1293. (University Microfilms No. AAC83-21092).

Danis, C., & Tremblay, N. A. (1988). Autodidactic learning experiences: Questioning established adult learning principles. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Self directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 171-197). Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Adult Education Department.

Dertouzos, M. L. (1991, September). Communications, computers and networks. New York, NY: Scientific American.

Durr, R., Guglielmino, L., & Guglielmino, P. (1994). Self-directed learning readiness and job performance at Motorola. In H. B. Long (Ed.) New ideas about self-directed learning (pp. 175-185). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Easterlin, R. A. (1980). Birth and fortune: The impact of numbers on personal welfare. Basic Books, New York.

Eisenman, G. (1988). Self-directed learning: A correlational study of 5th grade students, their parents and teachers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49/12A, 120.

Eisenman, G. (1990). Self-directed learning-a growth process. In H. B. Long (Ed.) Advances in research and practice in self-directed learning (pp. 93-122). Norman, OK: Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Field, L.D. (1989). An investigation into the structure and validity and reliability of Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. Adult Education Quarterly, 39(3), 125-139.

Finestone, P. (1984). Construct validation of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Canada.

Flavell, J. H. (1963). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget.
D.Van Nostrand Co..

Flavell, J. H. (1970a). Cognitive changes in adulthood. In L. R. Goulet and P. B. Baltes (Eds.), Lifespan developmental psychology: Research and theory. New York: Academic Press.

Flavell, J. H. (1970b). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton, NJ:
D. Van Nostrand Co..

Flavell, J. H. (1977). Cognitive development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc..
Garrison, D. R. (1992). Critical thinking and self-directed learning in adult education: An analysis of responsibility and control issues. Adult Education Quarterly, 41, 136 148.

Godfrey, E. (1975). Self-directed people in organizations. Part 1. Industrial Training International, 10(2), 34-36.

Gore, A. (1991). Computers, networks and public policy: Infrastructure for the global village. Scientific American, Special Issue, September, 265 (3).

Guilford, J. P. (1968). The three faces of intellect. In R. G. Kuhlen (Ed.) Studies in educational psychology (pp. 59-70). Waltham, MA: Blaisdell Publishing Co..

Guglielmino, P. J., & Klatt, L. A. (1994). Self-directed learning readiness as a characteristic of the entrepreneur. In H. B. Long (Ed.) New ideas about self directed learning (pp. 161-174). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Guglielmino, L. M. (1977). Development of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.

Guglielmino, L. M. (1992). Familial relationships in readiness for self-directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.) Self-directed learning: Application and research (pp. 181-188). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education, University of Oklahoma.

Guglielmino, L. M. (1996). An examination of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables of top female executives. In H. B. Long (Ed.)
Current developments in self-directed learning (pp. 11-22). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, College of Education, University of Oklahoma.

Guglielmino, L. M., & Guglielmino, P. J. (1988). Self-directed learning in business and industry: An information age imperative. H. B. Long & Associates, Self-directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 125-148). Athens, GA: University of Georgia.

Guglielmino, P. J., Guglielmino, L. M., & Long, H. B. (1987). Self-directed learning readiness and performance in the work place: Implications for business, industry, and higher education. Higher Education, 16(3), 303-17.

HamCall: U. S. And International. (1993). Mineral, VA: Buckmaster Publishing.
Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K., Rueping, R. R., & Mason, W. A. (1968). Maturation and increasing learning capability. In R. G. Kuhlen (Ed.) Studies in educational psychology (pp. 41-49). Waltham, MA: Blaisdell Publishing Co..

Hays, W. L. (1988). Statistics. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., The Dryden Press.

Hiemstra, R. (1988). Self-directed learning: Individualizing instruction. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 99-124).

Houle, C. O. (1988, second printing), The inquiring mind. The University of Wisconsin Press.

Howard, M. M. (1985). Modeling a training and development system and employee motivation to learn. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Jarvis, P. (1985). The sociological perspectives on lifelong education and lifelong learning. Athens, GA: Adult Education Department on Lifelong Learning and Self Direction in Learning including the Lifelong Learning Forum, University of Georgia.

Jarvis, P. (1986). The sociology of adult and continuing education (Reprint). Dover, NH: Croom Helm.

Jarvis, P. (1990). Self-directed learning and the theory of adult education. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Advances in research and practice in self-directed learning (pp. 47-65). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Jarvis, P. (1992). Free-will, freedom and self-directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.) Self-directed learning: Application and research. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Jones, C. J. (1989). A study of the relationship of self-directed learning readiness to observable behavioral characteristics in an adult basic education program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.

Kasworm, C. E. (1983). Self-directed learning and lifespan development. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 2(1), 29-46.

Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for teachers. Chicago Press. Association Press.

Knowles, M. S. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy. New York: NY Association Press.

Knowles, M. S. (1991, February). Keynote presentation at the Fifth International
Symposium on adult self-directed learning, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma .

Kuhlen, R. G. (1968). Studies in educational psychology. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell Publishing Co..

Kurian, G. T. (1996). DATAPEDIA of the United States 1790-2000: America year by year. Lanham, MD: Bernan Press.

Langenbach, M., Vaughn, C., & Aagaard, L. (1994). An introduction to educational research. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Lant, T. K., & Mezias, S. J. (1990). Managing discontinuous change: A
simulation study of organizational learning and entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 147-179.

Larkin, J. (1988). The reshaping of everyday life in the United States 1790-1840. Harper & Row Publishers, Inc..

Lawton Public School System (1992). Understanding outcome based education. Staff development course presented by T. R. Redding in the Lawton Community Education Program.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing.

Long, H. B. (1987). New perspectives on the education of adults in the United States. New York: Nicoles Publishing Co.

Long, H. B. (1988a). Foreword to the New Edition. In the 1988 edition of Cyril O. Houle's The inquiring mind. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B. (1988b). Self-directed learning reconsidered. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 1-10). Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Adult Education Department.

Long, H. B. (1989a). Self-directed learning: Emerging theory and practice. In H. B. Long (Ed.) Self-directed learning: Emerging theory and practice (pp. 1-12). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B. (1989b). Truth unguessed and yet to be discovered: A professional's self directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Emerging theory and practice (pp. 125-135). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B. (1990a). Understanding adult learners. In M. W. Galbraith (Ed.), Adult learning methods: A Guide for effective instruction (pp. 23-37). Malabar, FL: R. E. Krieger.

Long, H. B. (1990b). Peter the Great: A social-historical analysis of self-education principles. Annual Adult Education Research Conference (AERC) Proceedings, May 18-20, 1990, University of Georgia, pp. 130-134.

Long, H. B. (1991a). Evolution of a formal knowledge base. In J. M. Peters, P. Jarvis
& Associates (Eds.), Adult education: Evolution and achievements
in a developing field of study
(pp. 66-96). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Long, H. B. (1991b). Preface to self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. ix-x). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B. (1991c). Challenges in the study and practice of self-directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. ix-x). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B. (1992A, March). Personal communication as to the earliest appearance of the term self-directed learning in the literature.

Long, H. B. (1992b). Learning about self-directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self directed learning: Application and research (p. 1-8). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B. (1993a). Self-directed learning knowledge: Some important issues. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Emerging perspectives of self-directed learning (pp. 1-9). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Long, H. B. (1993b). Preface. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Emerging perspectives of self directed learning (p. Ix). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Long, H. B., & Agyekum, S. (1983). Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: A validation study. Higher Education, 12, 77-87.

Long, H. B. & Barnes, K. (1995). Self-directed learning in nursing education. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.) New dimensions in self-directed learning (pp. 217 242). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, College of Education, University of Oklahoma.

Long, H. B., & Confessore, G. J. (1992). Abstracts of literature in self-directed learning 1966-1982. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B., & Redding, T. R. (1991). Self-directed learning. Dissertation Abstracts, 1966-1991. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Long, H. B., Redding, T. R., & Eisenman, G. (1993). Development of self-directed learning readiness: A longitudinal study. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Emerging perspectives of self-directed learning (pp. 9-25). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Long, H. B., Redding, T. R., & Eisenman, G. (1994). A longitudinal study: Social behavior and SDLRS scores. In H. B. Long (Ed.), New ideas about self-directed learning (pp. 39-57). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Long, H. B., Redding, T. R., & Eisenman, G. (1995). Longitudinal study of Self Directed Learning Readiness: SDLRS scores at the 5th, 8th, and 11th Grades. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.) New dimensions in self-directed learning (pp. 23-37). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, College of Education, University of Oklahoma.

Long, H. B., & Stubblefield, C. H. (1994). Childhood experiences as origins of Self Directed Learning Readiness. In H. B. Long (Ed.), New ideas about self-directed learning (pp. 15-22). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education of the University of Oklahoma.

Massey, M. E. (1979). The people puzzle: Understanding yourself and others. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company.

McCune, S. L., & Guglielmino, L. M. (1991). The validity generalization of Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. 147-154). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

McCune, S. L., & Garcia, G., Jr. (1989). A meta-analytic study of the relationship between adult self-direction in learning and psychological well-being: A review of the research from 1977-1987. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Emerging theory and practice (pp. 87-98). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Merriam, S. B., & Simpson, E. L. (1984). A guide to research for educators and trainers of adults. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company.

Mezirow, J. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformation Theory and cultural context: A reply to Clark and Wilson. Adult Education Quarterly, 41(3), 188-192.

Middlemiss, M. A. (1987). Relationship of self-directed learning readiness and job characteristics to job satisfaction for professional nurses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University.

Minium, E. W., & Clarke, R. B. (1982). Elements of statistical reasoning. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Morris, S. S. (1997). Item analysis of Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: Revisiting the issue of internal consistency. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Expanding horizons in self-directed learning (pp. 195-208). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, College of Education, University of Oklahoma.

Mourad, S. A. (1979). Relationship of grade level, sex, and creativity to readiness for self-directed learning among intellectually gifted students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 04A, p. 2002. (University Microfilms No. AAC79-23138)

NACB (1997). North American Listings, Radio Amateur Call Book, 1997. Radio Amateur Call Book. NY, NY: Watson-Guptill Publications, BPI Communications.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York, NY: International University Press.

Pratt, D. D. (1988). Andragogy as a relational construct. Adult Educational Quarterly, 38,(3), pp. 160-172.

Redding, T. R. (1991). Spark-gap to space: A descriptive study of self-directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. 155 176). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Redding, T. R., & Aagaard, L. (1991, February). A descriptive study of the construct of self-directed learning. Paper presentation at the Fifth International Symposium on Adult Self-Directed Learning, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Redding, T. R., & Aagaard, L. (1992). A descriptive study of the construct of self directed learning. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self-directed learning: Application and research (pp. 147-162). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education, University of Oklahoma.

Rodin, J. (1990). Control by any other name: Definitions, concepts and processes. In J. Rodin, C. Schooler, K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Self-directedness: Cause and effects throughout the life course (pp. 19-50). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Rousseau, J. (1911). êmile, translation by Barbara Foxley. Dent, London, England.

Rusk, R. R., & Scotland, J. (1979). Doctrines of the great educators. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Russell, J. M. (1990). Relationship among preference for educational structure, self directed learning, instructional methods, and achievement. Journal of Professional Nursing, 6 (2), 86-93.

Sexton, C, A. (1985). A study of psychological factors related to assuming responsibility for work-related self-directed learning. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult Continuing Education, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Oct 10-11, 1985.

Schooler, C. (1990). Individualism and the historical and social-structural determinants of peoples concern over self-directedness and effacy. In J. Rodin, C. Schooler, & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Self-directedness: Cause and effects throughout the life course (pp. 19-50). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Smith, R. M. (1988). Improving the dissemination of knowledge about self-directedness in education. In H. B. Long and Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 149-167). Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Adult Education Department.

Spear, G. E. (1988). Beyond the organizing circumstances: A search for methodology for the study of self-directed learning. In H. B. Long & Associates (Ed.), Self directed learning: Application and theory (pp. 199-222). Athens, GA: University of Georgia.

Spear, G. E., & Mocker, D. W. (1984, Fall). The organizing circumstance: Environmental determinants in self-directed learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 35( 1), 1-10.

Stubblefield, C. H. (1992). Childhood experiences and adult self-directed learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
The New Encyclopedia Britannica. The University of Chicago, V 27, p. 370, 1987.

Toffler, A. (1970). Future shock, (63rd printing). Bantam, NY, New York.

Toffler, A. (1981). The third wave, (7th ed.). Bantam, NY, New York.

Tough, A. (1967). Learning without a teacher: A study of tasks and assistance during adult self-teaching projects. Toronto: Ontario Institute of Studies in Education.

Udwadia, F. E. (1990). Creativity and inovation in organizations: Two models and managerial implications. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, pp. 65-80.

West, R. F., & Bentley, E. L. (1989). Structural analysis of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: A confirmatory factor analysis using Lisrel modeling. In H. B. Long and Associates (Ed.), Advances in research and practice in self-directed learning (pp. 157-180). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

West, R. F., & Bentley, E. L. (1991). Relationships between scores on the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, Oddi Continuing Learning Inventory and participation in continuing professional education. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Self directed learning: Consensus and conflict (71-92). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

White, R. W (1968). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. In R. G. Kuhlen (Ed.) Studies in educational psychology (pp. 81-94. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell Publishing Co..

Wilson, R. W. (1992). B/STAT: Graphical and statistical software. Missisauga,
Ontario, Canada.

Zemke, R. (1982). Self-directed learning: A must skill in the information age. Training(8), 28-30.